IEC 61850 for communications and systems in substations
This is a standard comprised of ten parts which outlines a complete framework for substation automation including EMI (electromagnetic interference) immunity and environmental requirements (IEC 61850-3) for communications networks and systems in substations.
The EMI immunity requirements of IEC 61850-3 are derived from IEC 61000-6-5 – Immunity for Power Station and Substation Environments which defines a set of potentially destructive EMI type tests designed to simulate both continuous and transient EMI phenomena in the substation.
In response to these requirements, Siemens had developed technology that withstands all of the EMI type tests required by IEC 61850-3 without experiencing any communications loss or delays.
Products featuring this technology also qualify as IEEE 1613 Class 2 Error-Free Devices. This innovation is known as Zero Packet Loss technology and it is designed to provide the same level of EMI immunity, performance, and reliability as protective relays.
IEEE 1588 for precision time synchronization in electric utilities
Precision timing solutions serve to increase an electric utility’s efficiency and uptime by improving monitoring and troubleshooting while also reducing CAPEX by converging timing and data networks.
Ratified by the IEEE in March 2008, the IEEE 1588 v2 protocol has been designed to overcome the inadequacies of previous solutions such as accuracy, scalability and cost. It is a network-based protocol that is reliable and accurate enough for use in electric power applications and the industry has already adopted a power profile for IEEE 1588 v2. It is also currently being considered for inclusion in IEC 61850 Edition 2.
The cabling infrastructure requirements are reduced by allowing time synchronization information to be transported over the same Ethernet medium as the data communications. It provides accuracy similar to GPS without the need for antennas at every node. This convergence of timing and data information networks can be carried out right to the network edge and converted to IRIG-B for synchronization of existing devices that are not capable of 1588, allowing them to be kept in service even while updating the timing and data network infrastructure. ‘Transparent clocks’ in Ethernet switches eliminates the need for end-to-end delay measurement, reducing traffic congestion and eliminating switch jitter. Thus, it meets the timing accuracy needs for the applications of today and those of the future while reducing the cost to install and maintain a separate dedicated timing network.
Key benefits of RUGGEDCOM's Precision Timing Solution:
- Eliminates the extra cabling requirements of IRIG-B by using common Ethernet cabling
- Achieves guaranteed millisecond accuracy for substation sequence of event timing
- Sub-microsecond accuracy for critical applications like IEC 61850-9-2 Process Bus
- Eases the deployment of precision timing networks in modern ‘All-Ethernet’ substations
- Facilitates the migration path from legacy solutions and paves the way towards IEC 61850
IEEE 1613 for communications networking devices in electric power substations
This standard specifies ratings, environmental performance requirements and testing requirements for communications networking devices installed in electric power substations.
Within the standard, two classes of devices are defined, based on the outcome of a specific set of potentially destructive EMI type tests (EMI stress) designed to simulate EMI phenomena in the substation. These type tests are derived from the same type tests applied to mission critical protective relaying devices (i.e. C37.90.)
- Class 1 – These devices are allowed to experience data errors, loss, or delays when exposed to EMI stress
- Class 2 – These devices must provide error-free (i.e. no data errors, delays or loss) operation when exposed to EMI stress
Neither class of device must experience any permanent damage under EMI stress.
RUGGEDCOM family of Ethernet switches with Zero Packet Loss™ technology qualifies as IEEE 1613 Class 2 Error-Free devices (i.e. RUGGEDCOM RSG2200, RSG2100, RS8000) putting these products in a class of their own.